For instance, Kansas is one of only a handful of states that has an "unlimited" homestead exemption. There is no value limit on the amount you can claim for your homestead exemption in Kansas. (However there is a limit in federal bankruptcy law on the amount of equity you acquired in the previous 1,215 days - roughly 3 years and 4 months - before filing bankruptcy.) Kansas does place a limit on the acreage you can exempt. Your homestead is limited to 1 acre if it is within an incorporated city or 160 acres outside city limits. However, the vast majority of people who file bankruptcy in Kansas will not have an issue with the above limitations and can just claim their value-unlimited homestead exemption.
When you claim Kansas exemptions, you also get to keep a car up to $20,000 in value. Household goods are exempt regardless of value. Jewelry is exempt up to $1,000 in value. Retirement accounts are exempt regardless of value. One exemption Kansas does not have is a "wildcard" exemption that can be applied to anything.
Comparing Kansas' bankruptcy exemptions to neighboring Missouri, you can see that Missouri's bankruptcy exemptions are much more limited. Missouri's homestead exemption is limited to $15,000. Household goods are limited to $3,000. Missouri's vehicle exemption is also $3,000. Missouri divides it's jewelry exemption between a $1,500 wedding ring exemption and a $500 general jewelry exemption. Missouri also has a wildcard exemption of $600 and a "head of household" exemption that varies depending on the household size, both of which can be applied to anything.
Even if an asset is not exempt, it may be possible to keep it when filing bankruptcy. Talking to a bankruptcy lawyer is the best way to figure out options for keeping non-exempt assets. Often the answer will depend on the local customs and practices of the bankruptcy trustees as well as the case law in the jurisdiction.
Exemptions can be complicated - even just figuring out what exemptions you're allowed to use. For instance, if you've moved recently, you may not be eligible to use any state's exemptions. In that case, there are federal exemptions you can claim when no state's exemptions are available. There are also exceptions to some rules, and most exemption statutes have years of case law interpretations that give nuance to their meanings. A bankruptcy attorney can help you do your exemption planning the right way.